Colorado Community Emergency Response Training (CERT) Programs

I got an msg re: Colorado Citizen's Preparedness from Cathy Prudhomme in the Gov's Office of Homeland Security.  In particular, Cathy pointed out that the recent devastation in Haiti is a vivid reminder of the importance of involving Colorado residents in our local Community Emergency Response Training (CERT) programs.  From full CERT training, to the shorter and more condensed Be Ready, and Take Part programs, local efforts in training and preparing our communities and residents for a myriad of potential Colorado disasters is a crucial role and.  Too, as we have all seen, in a major disaster your friends, families and neighbors may be your first lifeline or assistance.
At this time throughout our state and the entire country, there's an increased interest from citizens looking for opportunities to raise their families level of disaster preparedness.  So, if you are already in a CERT group, make sure it is registered on the National Citizen Corps/CERT web site at and verify that the registration information is current and complete, including your unit description.  

If you are not a part of your local Citizen Corps or want to know more about CERT programs in your area, check out check out and, of course...

Cathy is a great Colorado community resource as Colorado's Community Preparedness Program Manager with the Governor's Office of Homeland Security.  So, if you have any questions regarding Citizen's Corps or Community Emergency Response Training Programs in Colorado, you can contact Cathy directly at

DEM on Facebook - COEmergency

Just a note that the Division has added a facebook page.  Either search for "COEmergency" on FB or go to the COEmergency FB Page now.  

DEM supporting Denver's "PJ Day"

 Ok... so the Division of Emergency Management is a bit more remote from our Department of Local Affairs (DOLA) HQ, but the first arrivers this morning are here and sporting PJs, too!  (Pictured - Brandon Williams, DEM).  DOLA and the Division are happy to be supporting Denver's PJ Day today to help raise awareness about homelessness.

Alright... now more coffee and then off to explain to my next meeting's colleagues why we rolling in house shoes, sweats and a t-shirt today...

For more on DOLA pitch in on the effort -

Pilot Course Opportunity - USFA Hazardous Materials / Special Operations Program Management

The United States Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Academy (NFA), just announced it is conducting a pilot course at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland for a 6-day course Hazardous Materials / Special Operations Program Management pilot course (P254).

According to the notice, the Hazardous Materials / Special Operations Program Management course is designed to guide students in gaining and sharing the knowledge, skills and abilities to effectively develop, manage and lead hazardous materials and/or other specific all hazards special operations response capabilities involved in specialized emergency response, including:

· Identification of special operations components.
· Identification of the inter-relationships between each discipline and then demonstrate how the manager balances the influences of diverse components.
· Manage all related disciplines under the same operational procedures.
· Balancing the “spider web” with understanding all the unique internal and external demands and influences.

Student Selection Criteria: Hazardous Materials / Special Operations Teams coordinators, managers, and personnel aspiring to become coordinators and managers, Personnel responsible for training, equipping, and sustaining specialized response resources, Personnel responsible for the supervision or leadership of a hazardous materials or special operations team or company.

The notice indicates that the class prerequisites include ICS 100 level and ICS 200 level training. Preferred courses are Q462 and Q463 available through NFA Online at Chief's signature attests that the applicant has completed this required training.

How to Apply: Students must complete a General Admissions Application (FEMA Form 75-5). An electronic application is available on the NFA's website at:

Completed applications must be postmarked by March 1, 2010 and sent to:
NETC Admissions Office
Building I, Room 216
16825 S. Seton Avenue
Emmitsburg, MD 21727

· Completed applications may also be faxed to the Admissions Office at (301) 447-1441.

Enhanced Threat and Risk Assessment Course - Loveland Office of Emergency Management - 3/31-1/1/10

The Loveland Office of Emergency Management will host an Enhanced Threat and Risk Assessment Course (MGT-315) on March 31 - April 1, 2010, at the Loveland Police and Courts Building in Loveland, Colorado.

The course augments the process taught in the current Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Threat and Risk Assessment Course.  Participants from all disciplines are guided through all phases of the DHS and FEMA risk management process, as applied to specific facilitites within the host jurisdiction.  Threats and hazards to those sites are prioritized, and vulnerabilities at those locations identfied through an on-site inspection by participant teams.   The consequences of terrorist threats, man-made and natural hazards to the sites are estimated, and options for mitigation that include equipment, training and exercises are defined.

Emergency response supervisors, managers, staff and commnity leaders are encouraged to attend.

For more info, contact Lt. Pat Mialy with Loveland Fire & Rescue at or check out the website at

Notice: EMForum Discussion on Emergency Management Policy Issues and Legislative Action

Per Lori Hodges of DEM and Colorado's State All-Hazards Advisory Committtee (SAHAC), I understand that will be hosting a one hour presentation and interactive discussion on Wednesday, January 27, 2009, beginning at 10:00 mountain time.  This presentation and discussion is open to emergency management personnel and the topic will be current emergency management policy issues before Congress, and how emergency managers can get involved to help promote local intiatives/issues.

Lori indicates that EMForum's guest will be Martha Braddock, Policy Advisor for the International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) where she develops and implements strategies to engage Congress, partner organizations, and Federal departments and agencies on key issues to local emergency managers.  Also joining will be Larry J. Gispert, Director of Hillsborough County Florida Emergency Management.  Mr. Gispert is a past president of IAEM and has served as liaison with IAEM's Government Affairs Committee.

For more info on the session, see for related materials and for instructions

EMForum hosts remind participants that, if this will be your first time to participate, to please check your connection at least a day in advance by clicking on the Live Meeting Login (link at the top left of the page). The Live Meeting client must be used in order to access the audio.

EMForum also notes that this educational opportunity is provided by the Emergency Information Infrastructure Project (EIIP).  For more emergency management-related discussion opportunities, check out their page at or follow @emforum them on Twitter for the latest announcements at

READYColorado - "Resolve to be Ready" Campaign Materials

Over the new year holiday, the national Ready America program ( conducted a "Resolve to be Ready" campaign to encourage citizens and businesses to join in making resolutions to prepare for emergencies.

While the materials have been removed from the site, READYColorado is still making them available here.  The materials are worth checking out.  There are some great tools that for outreach campaigns that can be used to apply to future campaigns you might be considering.  For example, the Resolve to Be Ready Toolkit is a great guide that contains ideas for utilizing new media, some press release and email campaign templates easily applied to any emergency preparedness campaign.  Too, the Toolkit contains a media pitch template and even contains some other "evergreen" materials like emergency preparedness quizzes and thoughts on how to maintain preparedness outreach campaigns throughout the year.  The toolkits and associated materials are posted on the READYColorado site in both English and Spanish, too.

So, check out the READYColorado Campaign Materials site and help spread the message!!!

La Plata Office of Emergency Management Offers Winter Storm Information and Safety Tips

I wanted to pass along the following release from La Plata County Office of Emergency Management (OEM) re: the winter storm response.  For additional information, please call Joanne Spina at (970) 759-1102.  Too, you can keep up with the latest developments on the La Plata OEM's Twitter feed at or online at

The La Plata County Office of Emergency Management has been monitoring storm activities throughout the week and has had continuous communication with fire departments, road crews, National Weather Service and volunteer agencies in order to maintain situational awareness for La Plata County.

A series of winter storms has impacted La Plata County over the past week. The heaviest storm began dropping snow early Thursday morning with increasing intensity throughout Friday night. Snow measurements in the Durango area totaled 36 inches and upwards of 52 inches in the surrounding hills.

This storm system produced a rapid accumulation of snow creating an extremely unstable snow pack. Doyle Villers, La Plata County Road and Bridge Superintendent, reported that snow removal crews have responded to numerous avalanches and slides on several County Roads even in areas that seldom or rarely see slides. Portions of County Roads 500, 501 and 243 were closed for much of Thursday night while road crews dealt with snow depths of 8 to 16 feet at the biggest of the slides. Local resident Justin McCarty assisted with removal of a snow slide that was 500 feet wide and 8 feet deep on CR 500 near the Witts End Ranch north of Vallecito.

Heavy snow and poor visibility slowed the County’s snow removal efforts throughout the night and prevented plows from maintaining the desired full width on some County Roads. Some roads have been reduced to single lanes of travel. Butck Knowlton  Director of the La Plata County Office of Emergency Management, advises residents to limit travel as much as possible. “Those who must travel, should exercise caution around snow removal equipment and avoid parking in the roadway, which creates an obstruction for snow plows,” advised Knowlton. Residents are also reminded not to push snow into roadways or place trash cans in the roadway, as this creates a hazard for snow plows and slows the snow removal process.

Winter Driving Tips

Motorists are encouraged to take the following precautions:

·           Allow more travel time on winter roads.

·           Reduce your speed.  Poor visibility, icy corners and heavy traffic may make it necessary for drivers to slow down. Watch for cars entering county roads from private driveways where snow obstructs visibility.

·           Prepare your vehicle properly, especially for mountain driving. Windshield wipers and tires should be checked and replaced as necessary.  Inadequate visibility and poor traction are the cause of many accidents.

·           Take a little extra time to clear the snow from your windshield, all windows, and lights before driving.  Make it easy for yourself to see and for others to see you.

·           For updated Southwest Colorado highway conditions, call the Colorado State Patrol/State line at 877-315-7623 or visit

·           Be a patient and courteous driver.

Snow Load on Roofs

The volume of snow and its weight are also creating serious concerns for the structures throughout La Plata County. Flat and low pitched roofs near Durango may currently have 33.8 pounds per square foot of snow, and we are expected to receive more snow through tomorrow. This weight and accumulation on flat and low pitched roofs approaches the design load capability of newer homes and buildings.

Property owners should consider removal of snow from:

·         Flat and low pitched roofs
·         Lower roof levels that receive snow and ice accumulation from higher roofs
·         Roofs with long unsupported spans
·         Older mobile or manufactured homes
·         Newer mobile homes if rated with 30 pound per square foot roof systems
·         Areas where large snow slabs may impact gas meters and electrical boxes

When shoveling roofs and plowing drives be sure not to cover gas meters, gas piping, electrical meters, panels or pedestals. Flag your propane tanks and utility equipment to prevent being damaged by snow removal equipment.

Personal Safety

Personal safety should be of paramount importance at all times.  Shoveling snow is a strenuous task, so residents are encouraged to use common sense and pace themselves appropriately.. Property owners should not attempt to shovel their roofs without taking proper safety precautions. And of course, motorists who must travel should keep a few emergency provisions in the trunk of your car, such as a small shovel, flashlight, blanket or sleeping bag and snacks.

DEM Advanced Emergency Manager Workshop - Colorado Springs - 2/22/10

I just got some additional info from Robyn Knappe, the Division's Training Officer, about the pre-conference workshop that will be held in Colorado Springs on February 22, 2010, in advance of the 2010 Colorado Governor's Emergency Management Conference

Robyn indicates that she has secured Lucien Canton ( to conduct the pre-conference workshop.  This upper level management workshop is intended for seasoned emergency managers aimed at advanced planning concepts. The bulk of the one day workshop is to give some very detailed ideas on how to start strategicly planning for your jurisdiction. The workshop is designed to enhance existing emergency managers capabilities to build, not just maintain, an effective emergency management program. This workshop is "must have" for those who been in their position for more than two years. The workshop will qualify for 7 hours of management education for your emergency manager certification (CEM/IAEM).

So, come join us for a energetic session on how to build stronger Colorado emergency management programs!  If you have any questions about the pre-conference workshop, contact Robyn Knappe at

Historical Colorado Flood Events

In preparation for our exercises, our exercise planner, Tony Reidell, always assembles a background paper on the scenario to help put a face and scale on real, related events in Colorado history to our exercise scenarios.  I always find these interesting and since we are preparing for a State-level flood exercise today, I thought I would pass along Tony's write-up.  If you have any questions about the background paper or exercise planning, you can contact Tony at

Historical Colorado Flood Events

Today, flood prone areas have been identified in 268 cities and towns and in all of the 64 counties in Colorado. Using information supplied from local units of government, there are estimated to be approximately 250,000 people now living in Colorado's floodplains. The Colorado Water Conservation Board (CWCB) estimates that approximately 65,000 homes and 15,000 commercial and industrial business structures are located in Colorado's floodplains. Designation of floodplains in Colorado for floodplain management activities is at the 100-year flood event. Cumulative flood losses from the turn of the century to 2003 from the state’s most damaging floods are over $5 billion (2003 dollars).

The average number of thunderstorm days per year in Colorado varies from less than 40 near the western boundary to over 70 in the mountains along the Front Range. The thunderstorm flood season in Colorado is from the middle of July through October.

Cherry Creek Basin Flood of July 14, 1912.

During Sunday afternoon and evening, July 14, 1912, torrential rains occurred in the greater portion of the Cherry Creek drainage basin, especially between Castle Rock and Denver. This stream is an unimportant tributary of the South Platte River, and forms a junction with that river about 200 yards above the Sixteenth Street viaduct in Denver. It has its source about 50 miles to the south of Denver, and its course to the South Platte lies through the heart of Denver. Its ordinary flow is insignificant, and this is true of the volume of water carried by it during most of Sunday.

Between 3.25 p.m. and 6.30 p. m., 2 inches of rain fell in Denver. Of that amount 1.72 inches fell in a period of 30 minutes. At Castle Rock the rain began at 5.15 p.m. For a period of 25 minutes it was very heavy, and by 7 p.m. 1 inch had fallen. It continued after 7 p. in. in the form of a drizzle, and by the morning of the 15th an additional 0.65 inch had occurred. in the southern portion of Denver and in that part of the drainage area lying to the north of Castle Rock the rainfall was apparently considerably greater than at the Weather Bureau station.

Aside from flooding streets, the rainfall in Denver proper did not contribute materially to the flood that later in the night inundated the low-lying districts of the city. However, it caused a rise of about 3 feet in the South Platte between 3.30 p.m. and 4.30 p.m. up to 8 p.m. there was but little increase in the flow in Cherry Creek, and no evidence of flood conditions were observed in that stream in the vicinity of Denver, but between 8.30 p.m. and 9.30 p.m. the water came down Cherry Creek with a rush. By 9:45 p.m. the stream was bankfull, and by 10 p. m. the water overflowed the banks and spread out two blocks on either side of the creek, north of Welton Street. In the vicinity of the railroad yards and Union Depot the area flooded was much greater.

At 10.45 p.m. the water was about 2 feet above the floors of the bridges that cross the stream in the downtown districts, and in the vicinity of the Union Depot it was from 2 to 3 feet deep. The maximum height attained was about 11 feet, and the maximum flow about 11,000 second-feet,. After 10.30 p.m. the flood subsided rapidly. At 11 p.m. the water was well within the banks of Cherry Creek. At midnight the stream had fallen decidedly, and by the early morning of the 15th only the ordinary flow remained.

Sand and silt were deposited to a depth of several inches in all localities that were flooded. Much damage resulted to crops, gardens, parks, streets, bridges, buildings, and to merchandise stored in the basements of buildings in the wholesale district. Traffic was interrupted on railroad , and the city tramway service was suspended for several hours. The Denver Gas & Electric Company, suffered material damage, and the Mountain States Telephone & Telephone Company, had many of its lines put out of commission. In aggregate, the damage to property was considerable, and is variously estimated at from $500,000 to $1,000,000. Two lives were lost and several persons were injured.

Golden Flash Flood of June 7, 1948.

"A cloudburst in the mountains northwest of Golden sent a 25 foot wall of water flashing down normally dry Tuckers Gulch through the northern section of Golden early yesterday causing damage estimated at between a quarter and a half million dollars."

"Although no one was reported killed or injured seriously, three small houses and two railway and three automobile bridges were washed away, basements' flooded and lawns and streets covered with tons of silt and debris."

"The stream in the canon (sic), normally only a trickle, soon was out of its banks and washed out state highway 58 in several places.

Another wall of water poured down Crawford's Gulch into Golden Gate Canon (sic) and then on to the outskirts of Golden where a third normally dry gulch, Christman (sic) Gulch, poured additional water into the stream. The water from the three streams poured into Tucker's Gulch and backed up behind a bridge carrying the railway spur to the Golden Fire Brick Co. plant, north of town.

When the bridge was washed out, the wall of water swept on down, carrying out the second railway bridge, the three automobile bridges and the main gas line of the Colorado Wyoming Gas Co...."

"Old timers in Golden were in disagreement as to whether yesterday's flood was worse than the one in 1896."

"...Although two houses were swept from their foundations and dissolved in the roaring torrent and many thousands .of dollars damage was done no lives were lost in the spectacular flash flood which descended on north Golden from Tucker's Gulch early Monday morning. It was estimated to have been the most serious in the city's history.

Advance warning of the oncoming wall of water, telephoned to Golden and relayed by sheriff's radio and Golden's police department, is credited with having prevented any loss of life." Damage Near $500,000

The 1965 Flood of the South Platte River

The damaging floods of June 1965 in the Denver-metro area were a result of heavy to torrential rainfall over large portions of the South Platte River Basin that lasted several days.

On the evening of June 16, 1965, a wall of water described by some as fifteen feet high came roaring down the South Platte River, the result of extremely severe thunderstorms many miles south of Littleton. By midnight, the torrent crested at twenty-five feet above normal and was carrying forty times the normal flow. In its wake, the course of the South Platte River from Littleton to the Colorado-Nebraska border was a mud-encased, wreckage-strewn landscape of desolation. The great South Platte River flood of 1965 was not Littleton's first flood, nor only disaster -- it was simply the biggest and costliest, by far.

In 1864, just two years after the homesteading of Richard Little and his neighbors, two weeks of constant, heavy rainfall sent the river out of its banks around Littleton and nearly destroyed Denver downstream. Another flood in 1914 lasted for six weeks, following record snowfalls the previous winter which at one time measured four feet deep on Main Street and even prevented trains from moving. Yet another flood occurred in 1900 when the Goose Creek Dam up Platte Canyon broke. In 1946, the snow again fell -- for seventy-one straight hours; in 1932 there was a severe drought; and in 1865, pioneer Mollie Sanford wrote of yet another plague: "In three days time an army of grasshoppers had destroyed the work of weeks." Life hasn't always been easy in Littleton.

There had been talk for some time about construction of a dam on the South Platte River above Littleton, but it inspired little interest. In the valley, Cherry Creek seemed to be the real nemesis, and that had been dammed in the 1930s. The wide, shallow, slow moving South Platte, even with the few examples above, didn't seem to warrant the same precaution. What the South Platte had become, instead, was a waste dump. All along its length through the Denver area it was an eyesore littered by abandoned cars, refrigerators, construction debris and everything else that people looked to discard. In 1965, there was an accounting for that lack of respect for the South Platte River.

Residents of Littleton and metropolitan Denver had little reason to anticipate a flood on Monday afternoon, June 16. Although a rare tornado and severe thunderstorms had hit Loveland a couple of days before, the forecast was for scattered thundershowers typical for a summer afternoon. In fact, it was not even local precipitation which fueled the flood, but a violent cloudburst many miles south near Castle Rock. The ground was saturated from previous days' rains, so the normally dry east and west branches of Plum Creek became raging torrents heading north to meet the South Platte, which was swollen itself by rains to the southwest.

Police were able to give people in Littleton several hours warning, so they could be evacuated. The first local casualty was the Columbine Country Club southwest of town, whose golf course and luxury homes were devastated. Overland Park golf course north of town suffered a similar fate. In between, Centennial Race Track, which was within days of opening its racing season, had most of its track and stable areas inundated. A massive rescue operation by owners, trainers and jockeys saved some 140 horses. The City's water supply, which consisted mainly of a series of wells along the river, was nearly destroyed. A network of fire hoses run from the nearest Denver outlets provided emergency water for months.

As the flood continued north, it was more than just water bashing the countryside -- it now included all the old cars and refrigerators and both old and new debris. This battering ram carried away or destroyed 26 bridges, including every one from Littleton north to the Colfax viaduct. Both Public Service Company power plants along the river were shut down, and emergency circuits became waterlogged and shorted out. As the flood continued north, other tributaries added their weight, Sand Creek and Clear Creek, and further north the Bijou and Little Beaver and the Poudre River. The communities of Sterling, Fort Morgan and Brush became isolated as the waters spread out over a quarter-million acres of farmland.

All told, it was estimated that the damage came to some $540 million, plus 28 persons lost their lives. The state could count itself fortunate that so few citizens were killed in one of Colorado's worst natural disasters because it began in broad daylight and few people were caught without some notice. On the positive side, much of the eastern plains received relief from a three-year drought and farmers made the most of the situation. Plans were quickly finalized and construction began on the Chatfield Dam, being completed in 1972. And with a massive cleanup required all along the South Platte, municipalities began to turn the valley into a beautiful greenbelt which today belies its garbage dump past. The river finally got its respect.

Tucker Gulch Flash Flooding of Golden, July 23-24, 1965

Similar to past events, heavy rainfall resulted in severe flash flooding of Tucker Gulch through Golden. It was reported that 4.5 inches fell within a one-hour period in the Tucker Gulch basin, exceeding the estimated one-hour 100-year precipitation by a factor of 1.8. In the lower reaches of Tucker Gulch the floodwaters were reported to have spread over about 17 blocks, causing an estimated $112,000 damage to 69 residences, three commercial enterprises, three railroad bridges, four street bridges, and utility lines. Local sources recalled that major damage to streets, bridges, and utilities resulted from the high channel velocities carrying large debris and silt, blocking bridges and forcing floodwaters down streets.

Photographs of the 1965 flood provide an illustrative account of this major flood event. The following descriptive information was provided by Vie Seiferth, City Engineer for Golden:

Photographs show the structural damage sustained by the 10th Street bridge, formerly State Highway 58. Major damage resulted from the force of a railroad trestle striking the bridge. The same trestle passed beneath the 9th Street bridge without causing damage.

The debris which collected south of Clear Creek resulted from Tucker Gulch overtopping its banks between 9th and 10th Streets, forcing floodwaters down Ford Street and across the bridge. The Mitchell School property is located left of the photo and the old Safeway property is located to the right. The Coors Wellness Center currently exists where the Safeway Store was located in 1965.

Photographs taken from a location beneath the existing Highway 58 overpass. The 1965 flood having occurred prior to the construction of the new highway. The Church Ditch siphon can be seen near the center of the photo, the Coors Porcelain Company can be seen in the background. The exposed sanitary sewer line has been replaced by a new line running along the west side of Ford Street.

The worker cleaned debris by hand from the culverts under the old road embankment near Boyd Street. The stream channel has been located to the west, since the 1965 flood. Today, Garden Street is located where this channel once existed.

Big Thompson Flood of July 31, 1976

The Big Thompson Canyon Flood occurred on 31 July, 1976, after a stationary thunderstorm dropped torrential rain in the area. The storm produced between 12 and 14 inches of rainfall in less than five hours. It was one of the deadliest freshwater floods in U.S. history. This resulted in a disastrous flash flood in which a 19 foot wall of water and debris washed down the canyon. In under two hours there where 145 fatalities, 418 homes and 152 businesses destroyed, and another 138 home damaged. More that $40 million dollars in damages were reported.

Late in July the front range of Colorado is generally characterized by warm sunny days with intermixed thunderstorms. On the 27 of July, 1997, wet tropical air stream in northward from Mexico supplied the moisture and an approaching cold front from the west provide the trigger for setting off heavy thunderstorms as the two moist air masses met over the state.

Intense rainfalls from the 28th to the 30th of July,1997, produced more than 10 inches of over a three day period in the areas of Fort Collins in Larimer County, Atwood and Waldona in Morgan County as well as Logan County. Trapped against the foothills, this monsoonal flow was responsible for more than half of the annual average rainfall for this area in less than 10 hours.

This slow moving storm resulted in five fatalities and 100 injured when unexpected surge waters swamped a mobile home parks and the City of Fort Collins. 120 mobile homes were destroyed and 2000 of other homes were damaged with 90 business closed and an additional 600 damaged. 400 people required rescued from windows, rooftops and stranded vehicles in the area. This storm was estimated to exceed the 500-year flood levels in some drainages. City services were overwhelmed as streets floored; power was lost in some areas.

Down stream (Atwood and Sterling) approximately 13,700 acres of agricultural lands were inundated with 1,400 residences and more that 200 additional businesses being affected.

The greatest single financial loss was experienced by Colorado State University, where floodwaters caused more that $120 to $160 million dollars in damages to campus buildings, books, utilities and other resources. Roads and bridges were damaged by the floor in 10 additional eastern counties, and over 100 projects were later added to the federal declaration to help cover costs of public infrastructure repairs.

Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Flood Workshop

When we do exercises, we usually have two sessions here at the Emergency Operations Center (EOC).  The first session is a "workshop" designed to run through checklists and procedures, make sure we catch any updates/changes and talk through the scenario.  The second session is, generally, the real-time run through complete with injects designed to complicate the response or to test specific aspects of our procedures we want to stress, break, etc., so that we can fix them.

Today, we are conducting a workshop for a flood.  The intent is to flood at a level large enough to stress local response capabilities and explore how the State might coordinate resources and offer support to affected populations. 

In Colorado, we are familiar with flooding.  It is a necessary component of what happens when snow melts.  Thankfully, we rarely see the massive, overwhelming flood conditions that some areas the country seem to be routinely plagued.  For more info on floods, flash floods and things you can do to be safe, check out DEM's flood page.  In preparation for a flood or any disaster, remember to check out READYColorado for guidance and thoughts on how to prepare your family's emergency kit and communication plan.

City of Durango Alerts

To help keep citizens and visitors informed, the City of Durango maintains a robust city alert page at They are using it this morning to notify the public about developments related to the current winter storm.  In addition, the City offers a registration email alert system to get email updates of breaking news or warnings in the Durango area.  To sign up for alerts, visit the City of Durango's email alert registration page.  You can also follow notices and general information from the City on Twitter at

For a list of Colorado local government twitter pages, including the City of Durango, check out our list at and for email/sms/text alert systems across Colorado, check out our Colorado SMS/Text Alert and Mobile Emergency Alert Systems page.

FY2010 Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools (REMS) Grant Application Info

First off, a HUGE "thanks" to Bob Glancy over at NOAA for the head's up on this opportunity.

The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools has recently released the FY 2010 Readiness and Emegency Management for Schools (REMS) grant application.  The REMS program provides funds to local educational agencies (LEAs which are typically public school districts) to establish an emergency management process that focuses on reviewing and strengthening emergency management plans, within the framework of the four phases of emergency management (prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery).

The program also provides resources to LEAs to provide training for staff on emergency management procedures and requires that LEAs develop comprehensive all-hazards emergency management plans in collaboration with community partners including local law enforcement, public safety, public health, and mental health agencies and local government.

The REMS grant is a competitive grant program.  As emergency managers, you can assist LEAs in your area by alerting them to this resource and sharing your expertise with them in developing their applications.  The REMS grant application package may be accessed at  The application submission deadline is February 26, 2010.  Funds may be requested for up to 24 months.

The estimated average size of the awards are as follows:  $150,000 for a small-size LEA (1-20 education faciltiies), $300,000 for a medium-size LEA (21-75 education facilities), and $600,000 for a large-size LEA (76 or more education facilities).  

For additional information, contact the REMS Competition Manager, Sara Strizzi via email at or via telephone at (303) 346-0924.

President Obama Creates Council of Governors for National Guard and Civil Support Missions

On Jan 11, 2010, the President signed an Executive Order establishing a Council of Governors "to strengthen further the partnership between the Federal Government and State Governments to protect our Nation against all types of hazards."

From the press release, the Council will review National Guard use, homeland defense issues, civil support use and address the synchronization of State and Federal military activities in the United States.  It seems that Kerry Kimble's recent post to this blog was very timely that addressed The Civil Side as a primer for incorporating active military into civil emergency management activities! 

It will be interesting to see how this develops and we will keep you informed here as we learn more about the role Colorado will play from the State side of the the Council.

Haiti Earthquake Information and Assistance Info from FEMA

Locating Family Members

The United States State Department Operations Center has set up the following number for Americans seeking information about family members in Haiti:  1-888-407-4747

With so many people in Colorado and around the United States wanting to help Haiti respond and recover from the recent earthquake, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Region 8 (Colorado's region) put together the information below to help you make informed decisions with legitimate, recognized sources of information about how to locate family members and make donations.


Cash donations allow for voluntary organizations to quickly pay for response and recovery efforts, and quickly provide direct financial assistance to disaster survivors to meet their own needs.  Those interested in making contributions to help the victims in Haiti can do the following:

Go to

For those looking for additional opportunities to donate to organization involved in recovery efforts in Haiti following the devastating eqrthquake that struck near Port au Prince on Jan 12, 2010, you may may contact the Center for International Disaster Information.  The Center, operated under a grant from the United States Agency for International Devleopment's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and initial support from IBM, has become a valuable resource to the public, as well as U.S. government agencies, foreign embassies and internatioanl corporations.  CIDI has established a dedicated page to coordinate Haiti support at:

For those interested in learning more about how best to donate to provide assistance in Haiti visit or visit

Additionally, interested donors can visit to obtain a list of credible responding agencies for international emergencies and to get valuable information on making informed decisions when supporting charities.  In addition, donors can visit

Free ICS-300 Weekend Training Opportunity - El Paso County

On April 24-25, 2010, the South Central All-Hazards Region is hosting a free ICS-300 weekend training opportunity.  The course is scheduled from 8:00 am - 5:30 pm with a 30 minute lunch break and will be held at the El Paso County Criminal Justice Center Complex Training Academy at 2741 East Las Vegas, Colorado Springs, CO 80911.

To register, email with ICS 300 APRIL 24 2010 in the subject line.  You will receive a registration form via return email.  The course is limited to the first 24 participants of whom only 6 may be affiliated with a federal or military organization.

Initiative is the Key to Preparedness.. Good Job, Tristen!

I wanted to pass along the work of a student, Tristen, who approached us here at the State for assistance in developing a series of safety videos as a part of his community service project for his school's International Baccalaureate program.

In short, the community service project was assigned with the object for students to “leave a footprint” in a subject area in which they have a personal interest.  Tristen's personal interest is in emergency management and sought us out at the State to serve as mentors to him for the project.  Over a seven-month effort, with the assistance of the mentors, students have to establish goals and milestones and generate deliverables.  Tristen came up with the idea of researching, writing, shooting and producing a series of videos on emergency management issues specific to Colorado-based hazards, including: cold weather safety, car safety kit, home water pipe/gas pipeline safety, general home safety, campfire safety, flood safety safety, lightning safety.

Thus far, Tristen has knocked out both cold weather and car safety videos (linked below). 

Cold Weather Prep -
Emergency Car Kit -

I got to view them this past weekend and thought I would pass them on. While the videos are great, it is the initiative that Tristen is demonstrating with this project that we at the State are most impressed! Personal accountability, initiative and helping your own community and peers by taking the responsibility on to pitch in to educate and spread the message is core to being prepared for the next disaster!

I look forward to the next series of videos and will pass those along, too. If you know of a unique effort that you want to share, let me know, I would love to pass it along, too! Just shoot me an email at

Reminder - State Furlough Week Restrictions

Just a reminder that the blog will not be updated until Monday, 1/11/10, due to labor hour restrictions regarding non-emergency response actions associated with the state employee furlough week.  As always, the DEM Duty Officer remains on call and available to assist emergency service personnel during non-business hours.

Have a great holiday weekend everyone and STAY SAFE!!!

New Year. New DEM logo!

Fireground Communications - PIO Toolbox for Team Managed Incidents

If you are a public information officer (PIO) or are associated with risk communications, no doubt you are familiar with wildland fire PIO activities.  Wildland fire PIOs have generated a huge amount of 'lessons learned' to operate in the field, under changing conditions, that anyone involved in communications can draw from.

So, I (or, much more accurately, Kiowa County's EM Chris Sorensen who sent me the link....) just wanted to share a link to the Fireground Communications Blog with you and, in particular, draw your attention to the Fireground Blog PIO Toolbox for Team Managed Incidents

On this page, you will find a wealth of information, templates, suggestions and backgrounders applicable to all-hazards and risk communication response.

Just a good, solid read.

Douglas County Sheriff Web Page - Resident "must have" and for others a "should definitely check out"...

If you haven't seen it, stop by and check out the Douglas County Sheriff's Office web page

As I work to do a much-needed, ground-up redesign of our Division's page, layout, content and flow, I am always on the hunt for examples/ideas in the emergency management field. From the intuitive interface, to the varied multi-media content, crime-mapping and personal "feel" of the site, I really appreciate the considered layout and content efforts of this site.  If you are a Douglas County resident or spending any time in Douglas County, it is certainly a "must have."  If you aren't a resident, it is a "should definitely check out."

If you have others in the law, fire or emergency management field in Colorado you think are worth checking out, too, feel free to send them my way at  Or, do you have any ideas on what you would like (or would not like to see) on the state's emergency management page?  Shoot me an email on that, too.  The site is yours, after all!!!

In any event, I just thought the site is not only informative, but also very intuitive and wanted to pass along.

Adams County Office of Emergency Management - Intern Opportunity

Instead of talking about service, helping your community or getting involved in making Colorado safer, why not actually do it?  Or, are you interested in gaining hands-on experience in emergency management to augment your studies, to help with your job search or to assist with a career change?

Adams County's Office of Emergency Management has a need for a volunteer intern.  The intern would work directly with emergency management coordinators on various projects, including hazard mitigation planning and plans review, support Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) meetings, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) council meetings as well as attend county-level meetings with the Emergency Managers and related representatives.

Apart from serving on a cool team, one of the tangible benefits this service offers is emergency management-related training including Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) classes, Wildland Fire Conference and/or incident management training.

The position will last for six months and requires a demonstrated interested in emergency management.  In addition, enrollment in, or completion of, a degree proram in emergency management, environmental science or other related field or completion of a certificate program in emergency management is also also required.  You must also have a driver's license and be able to pass a criminal background check.

Experience with web page and social media is also preferred!

Applications can be submitted online on the Adams County Current Career Opportunities Page and the closing date for apps is 1/18/10.  Any questions, contact Heather McDermott, Coordinator, Adams County Office of Emergency Management at

Basic Public Info Officer Course - Sterling, CO - April 1-2, 2010

The Northeast Colorado Health Department, in cooperation with the Division of Emergency Management, will conduct a Basic Public Information Officer (PIO) Course in Sterling, Colorado, on April 1-2, 2010.  This two day course is intended for PIOs and the emphasis is on the basic skills and knowledge needed for emergency management public information response.  Register for the class on the Division training website using the 75-5 EZ Form or contact Robyn Knappe, the Divisions Training Officer at for more information.

Denver UASI to Host ICS-400 Class 3/2-3/3/10

The Denver Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) is hosting an ICS-400 Advanced ICS Command and General Staff-Complex Incidents course from March 2-3, 2010 at the National Environmental Training Institute (NETI) in Lakewood, CO.

The course is intended for command or upper-level management from fire departments, emergency medical services, law enforcement, public works, public safety communications, emergency management, public health, healthcare, government officials and hazardous materials technicians.

Registration for the course can be done on the Denver-UASI site and for any questions or comments, contact the UASI Training Coordinator, Tom Witowski at

Ft. Collins - Homeland Security Exercise and Eval Program Course - 1/26/10-1/28/10

Speaking of COTRAIN... I understand that Ft. Collins is hosting a Homeland Security Exercise & Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Training Course on 1/26/10 through 1/28/10 - COTRAIN Course ID - 1016777.  The HSEEP courses focus on exercise program management, design and development, conduct, evaluation, and improvement planning. In addition to the instructor led presentations, the course includes small group activities, videos, group discussions, and introductions to HSEEP-related initiatives such as technology (e.g., HSEEP Toolkit) and capabilities-based planning.

The intended audience for this course includes: Exercise Points of Contact, Exercise Planning Team, Leaders/Members, Exercise Controllers/Facilitators, and Exercise Evaluators

Therefore, participants are required to complete, at a minimum, Independent Study (IS)-120A: An Introduction to Exercises. This course can be found at

To register, go to the course listing in COTRAIN and for any questions, contact

DEM Migrates Training Scheduling/Registion to COTRAIN

Very cool training news... 

I just got the word that over the coming months, the Division of Emergency Management will be migrating our training courses into COTRAIN.  This will provide a one-stop shop for State-level public health, emergency management and homeland security-related training opportunities and information. 

If you are in Colorado and in emergency management, health care or other first responder field, you are probably already familiar with the site.  If not, in a quick summary, COTRAIN allows you to quickly find and register for many courses, track your learning with personal online transcripts, access materials, course reviews, and discussions to improve your learning experience. 

As I find out more about the migration timeline, new course offerings and notices, I'll pass them along.  In the meantime, check out the site and if you don't have an acct, register for one and check out the courses already posted.

If you have any questions about Division training opporunities or the migration to COTRAIN, contact Robyn Knappe, the Division's Training Officer at

The Civil Side: What Happens Before the Active Military is Requested - by Kerry Kimble

I got this article from Kerry Kimble, here at the Division, and wanted to pass it along.  While the article was written in a personal, rather than a DEM representation capacity, I think it is a very insightful read and Kerry gave me the OK to share it here.

In short, the article is intended as a primer for National Guard and/or military personnel who might play a role in a disaster response/recovery operation as to how the civilian emergency management system operates.  It addresses the civilian side Incident Command System, the State/Presidential Disaster Declaration processes, Preliminary Damage Assessment efforts and evaluates how Emergency Management Assistance Compacts (EMAC) requests all combine to facilitate emergency response and recovery actions.

I have reprinted the article, in full and without edits, below.  Kerry's footnotes can also be found listed below the article.  For any questions, contact Kerry Kimble on this article at



What happens before the active military is requested

by Kerry L. Kimble[i]

With society becoming more complex, and more people living and working in hazard prone areas, disasters are posing an ever greater threat to our safety and well being.  At the same point, technological developments are creating radiological and chemical hazards resulting in new challenges for local governments.  States are faced with a variety of natural and man – made hazards, such as wildfires, floods, landslides, tornados, winter storms, dam failures, drought, earthquakes, and acts of terrorism[ii].  The federal government worries about the strategic threat to the homeland. 

As the nation approaches the five year anniversary of the Hurricane Katrina disaster, the Department of Defense is undergoing its traditional review of Defense Support to Civil Authority[iii].  In an effort to meets its vision of “not a minute too soon, or a second too late[iv],” U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) can bring to bear a tremendous amount of material, equipment, and personnel.  The thesis of this article is to recognize that the active duty military can play a role of the cavalry coming to help during a catastrophic event, but they must be acquainted with the response community that is already in place and which they will plug into when they arrive on-scene. 

As we know, USNORTHCOM has many missions[v].  Two that directly impact local and State jurisdictions are:

·         Provide domestic disaster relief operations that occur during fires, hurricanes, floods and earthquakes; and

·         When an emergency exceeds the capabilities of local, state and federal agencies the Command can provide limited, localized and specific support.   

Both of these take the form of providing assistance to an impacted jurisdiction when tasked by the Department of Defense.   With that in mind, we must remember that all disasters / emergencies[vi] are local.  Whether they are a devastating tornado that shreds half of a town or an earthquake that displaces 100,000 people.  It is those fire service, emergency medical, hazardous material, emergency management, law enforcement, and public safety communication professionals who respond at the moment of impact.

To organize the response effort for any and all incidents, there is an organization or structure which facilitates operations.  Utilizing guidelines from the National Incident Management System[vii], the Incident Command System is activated.  This system provides a command and control structure for dealing with all aspects of the situation. 

The advantage of this structure is that this provides a great deal of flexibility and scalability depending upon the size of the incident.  The key is that every agency involved knows where to plug into the system and what their role and responsibilities are. 

The first response agency on the scene (usually the fire service or law enforcement) takes charge.  As more and more first responders arrive, the Incident Command System structure becomes formalized.  The General Staff element consists of an Incident Commander, Operations, Plans, Logistics, and Administration / Finance Section Chiefs.

As previously mentioned, the actual structure of the response organization is flexible and scalable.  As the incident continues to evolve, other response disciplines begin to show up:  mental health, non-governmental organizations, public health, environmental health, search and rescue, etc.  Also depending upon the situation, private – sector based response teams can be brought in as well such as gas, water, electrical, and telephone utilities.  As additional response disciplines[viii] are needed, the Incident Command System structure is expanded to include Divisions / Groups / Branches. 

The Incident Command System may appear as a loose configuration of the willing.  However, there are some similarities to the military.  One important document from this system is the first responder version of an operations order, which is the Incident Action / Support Plan.  This Plan describes the organizational structure, mission objectives, communications plan, and safety for the operational period, which is usually twelve hours in duration[ix].  Attachments could include: air operations, medical, base operations, demobilization, etc. 

Because of the continuous relationship all of these agencies have and their respect for the Incident Command System, except for the initial responders, none of these additional teams self – deploy to the incident.  By this we mean they do not show up on their own.  This helps in the management of assets.  As other local, State, and federal resources are requested and arrive on scene they check in with their appropriate team leads to obtain an update on the situation and to find out what the mission objectives for the next operational period. 

Another element of the Incident Command System is the addition of the Command staff (Public Information Officer, Liaison Officer, and Safety Officer).   These personnel report directly to the Incident Commander. 

A prime example of where the Incident Command System worked was in Pearlington, Mississippi, where the full force (sustained winds of 120 mph) of Hurricane Katrina was felt on August 29, 2005 at 10:00am CDT[x].  Agencies had established and exercise plans for a number of different scenarios.  They may not have received the same amount of media coverage as other jurisdictions, but their need for assistance was just as great.  Their major advantage was reliance on the system and its continued practice. 

Conversely, as we all know, the City of New Orleans and the State of Louisiana were overwhelmed in dealing with the devastation.  First responders became victims, critical infrastructure was damaged and / or destroyed, mutual aid was not available because of the swath of the hurricane, and the number of people adversely affected by this natural hazard.  Support was available only from non - Gulf Coast states and the Federal government.  Even though there were command and control issues, when the military arrived on the scene, what they brought to the response were dedicated professionals who were proficient in their skills, disciplined in maintaining their focus on the task at hand, and an organizational structure that was capable of moving tons of material and deploying forces to where they were needed.

These types of situations will always occur.  Some entities, to one degree or another, will always be prepared to deal with the results of a natural, technological, or terrorism – related hazard event.  Others may not be as prepared.  This can be due to being short of the appropriate funding, an insufficient number of trained individuals, out of date equipment, or the lack of leadership.  These failures are not limited to a particular response discipline or a geographical segment of the country (or even the world).  In recognition of this reality, that is why all levels of government have built mechanisms to receive formal requests for assistance and to response to those requests. 

While the initial response is being conducted, local political authorities are taking the appropriate steps to support the responders on the ground.  This is primarily conducted through the issuance of a proclamation stating that a disaster and / or emergency exists.  The affect of a declaration of local disaster / emergency is to activate the response and recovery aspects of any and all applicable local and intra - jurisdictional disaster emergency plans and to authorize the furnishing of aid and assistance under such plans.  In some cases, this entails the release of local disaster funds to cover the response costs. 

Throughout the country, there are systems and procedures in place to bring in additional assets when the initial wave of responders becomes overwhelmed or start to become fatigued.  This is accomplished through mutual aid with surrounding local jurisdictions or internal state regional partners.  From there, if additional assistance is needed, then State – level government comes in to assist in coordinating the acquisition of resources from other parts of the State and even from other States through a variety of assistance compacts.  This could, eventually, lead to requests for federal assistance. 

One of these avenues that is available to the States they can tap into for personnel and equipment is through the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC).  EMAC is a congressionally ratified organization that provides form and structure to interstate mutual aid. 
Through EMAC, a disaster impacted State can request and receive assistance from other member States quickly and efficiently. 

On behalf of the Governor, the State emergency management agency responds to requests from local entities and coordinates supporting activities of State agencies as well as the federal government in order to assist in minimizing the impacts, concerns, frustrations, and mostly the normal confusion that are part of any disaster or emergency.  This agency operates through a coordinated management process through each of the four emergency management phases: prevention; preparedness; response; and recovery. 

One of the key steps during the incident is the arrival of a federal liaison at the State Emergency Operations Center.  In most cases, this individual comes from Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) regional offices.  A Presidential Disaster Declaration is not a pre – requisite for this to occur.  The role of this individual is to conduct a strategic assessment of the incident and report back to their headquarters.  Another role of this individual is to provide advice and assistance on what federal response / recovery assets can be brought in to fill gaps in the operation.

The process the States need to go through to request federal assistance is very simple.  It involves a formal request by the Governor outlining the severity of the incident, a description of what State and local jurisdictions have done to respond to the incident, and what type of assistance is requested.  This request is routed through the FEMA Regional Administrator who validates the information, makes a recommendation, and then forwards it to FEMA Headquarters.  The desired end – state is to obtain a Presidential Disaster Declaration, which will allow resources (personnel, equipment, supplies, and funding) to flow to the incident[xi].

In reality, federal support occurs before the Governor’s request is compiled.  This involves:  an initial federal damage assessment team who surveys the area; delivery of water, ice, Meals Ready to Eat (MREs), and basic need supplies; public health advisories, etc.

The Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA) team is a joint assessment used to determine the magnitude and impact of an event's damage.  A FEMA / State / U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) team will usually visit local applicants and view their damage first-hand to assess the scope of damage and estimate repair costs.  The State uses the results of the PDA to determine if the situation is beyond the combined capabilities of the State and local resources and to verify the need for supplemental Federal assistance.  The PDA also identifies any unmet needs that may require immediate attention.  The PDA is not a guarantee of federal assistance. PDA results are provided to the State, which uses the information as a planning tool to decide if they will request federal assistance.

As with everything, funding is the critical element.  If other States do provide resources, then the supported state assumes responsibility for salaries, equipment costs, etc for the duration of their deployment.  Therefore, the activation of the EMAC process usually takes place after issuance of a President Disaster Declaration, unless the State is willing to pay these expenses from their general or disaster funds. 

Once a Presidential disaster declaration is signed, then the various aspects of the National Response Framework can be implemented.  Assets from the Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Environmental Protection Agency, the
Federal Emergency Management Agency, etc can be mobilized and brought in.  But, as stated earlier, these assets come in to support the local incident commander, not to take command[xii].  The only exception to this is when the President issues an Executive Order declaring an incident a National Security Special Event[xiii] (NSSE). 

Usually these NSSEs are for known pre – planned events such as the Olympics, national political conventions, major sporting events, etc.  Federal authorities have the incident lead for a specifically designated geographical area.  The fallacy of these is the cascading effects of this incident are not limited to this confined space.  Local jurisdictions are responsible for the surrounding area(s).  Hazards will not end at an arbitrary grid line. 

The glamour part of responding to incidents is what is seen in the media.  A firefighter putting water on flames, a search and rescue team pulling a live victim out of a collapsed building, the National Guard handing out water and ice, law enforcement arresting a looter, etc.  But what is not seen, and not really thought about outside of the response community, is the logistical train to support the responders.  This involves, but not limited to: feeding, sheltering, taking care (medical and mental health) of them, scheduling of shifts and replacements, fueling, etc.

As mentioned in the beginning, there are four phases of emergency management.  During the response phase, all agencies involved [local, State, federal (USNORTHCOM, other agencies)] are focused on life safety and getting an assemblance of order reestablished.  However, the hardest work comes during the recovery phased when putting people’s lives back together becomes the primary objective.  Except for FEMA and the SBA loans, the task falls back to the State and more importantly the local entity.  This is a long – term project.  For example, a tornado that is on the ground for thirty seconds may require 9 – 12 months for a town to get back to normal.  We are over four years from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and there are some estimates it will take 10 – 20 years before the Gulf Coast returns to its pre – August 2005 standard. 

This recovery phase is highlighted in a further restatement of the USNORTHCOM mission “in providing civil support, USNORTHCOM generally operates through established Joint Task Forces subordinate to the command.  An emergency must exceed the capabilities of local, state, and federal agencies before USNORTHCOM becomes involved.  In most cases, support will be limited, localized and specific.  When the scope of the disaster is reduced to the point that the affected jurisdiction can again assume full control and management without military assistance, USNORTHCOM will exit, leaving the on – scene experts to finish the job.”[xiv]

In conclusion, all incidents start at the local level.  The emergency medical technician, firefighter, law enforcement officer, and hazardous material professionals are the first on the scene.  They are responsible for the incident assessment and response operations to save lives and protect property.  If the situation exceeds their capabilities, then mutual aid with the surrounding jurisdictions is requested.  As the severity and complexity of the incident becomes clearer, this mutual aid may become insufficient.  To fill the gap, the State needs to become actively involved because they have access to other response assets (whether they are State – level response teams, other local jurisdictions who reside at the other end of the State, or from outside of the State).  When the State expends its resources, it will look to the federal community for further assistance.  This assistance can take the form of funding, equipment, supplies, personnel – whether that takes the form of the military, technical advisors, or specialized responders.  Regardless, the bottom line is to help the residents recover and get their lives back to normal.

[i] The opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the author and do not officially or unofficially represent any position by the Colorado Division of Emergency Management, Department of Local Affairs, State of Colorado, or any other local, State, federal, non-governmental, or private sector entity associated with these governmental organizations. 
[ii] Colorado Disaster Emergency Procedures Handbook for Local Governments, Department of Local Affairs, Division of Emergency Management (2007) p. 3. 
[iii] Renamed from Military Support to Civil Authority in 2004.
[vi] Most states have a similar definition.  Disaster means the occurrence or imminent threat of widespread or severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property resulting from any natural cause or cause of human origin, including but not limited to fire, flood, earthquake, wind, storm, wave action, hazardous substance incident, oil spill or other water contamination, requiring emergency action to avert danger or damage, volcanic activity, epidemic, air pollution, blight, drought, infestation, explosion, civil disturbance, hostile military or paramilitary action, or a condition of riot, insurrection, or invasion existing in the state or in any county, city, town, or district in the state.  (Colorado Revised Statute, 24-32-2103). 
[vii] Homeland Security Presidential Directive - 5 Management of Domestic Incidents requires all Federal departments and agencies to adapt NIMS and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency protection, preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation programs (2003).  . 
[viii] Besides those previous mentioned, these include:  agriculture, air operations, building inspectors, communications, criminal investigation, cultural experts, information technology, mass care, sheltering, transportation, veterinarian, etc. 
[ix] A separate plan is written for each operational period. 
[x] Due to its path, Hurricane Katrina also directly hit Buras-Triumph, St. Bernard parish, St. Tammany parish, and Slidell in Louisiana.
[xi] Colorado Disaster Emergency Procedures Handbook for Local Governments, Department of Local Affairs, Division of Emergency Management (2007), p.9
[xii] Even national incident such at the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster are local, with a large federal presence. 
[xiii] In May of 1998, President Clinton issued Presidential Decision Directive 62 (PDD-62).  This directive formalized and delineated the roles and responsibilities of federal agencies in the development of security plans for major events. The clarifying of responsibilities serves to focus more clearly the role of each agency and eliminate the duplication of efforts and resources.  In 2000, the Presidential Protection Act of 2000 became public law. Included in the bill, signed on December 19, was an amendment to Title 18, USC § 3056 which codified PDD-62.